Spiritual warfare – moving beyond demons in the closet

I said recently that nowadays I tend to steer well clear of anything to do with spiritual warfare.

Back in my more charismatic days, 15 or so years ago, I was taught that we were all engaged in an on-going spiritual fight-to-the-death against the forces of Darkness. These forces were literal demons or fallen angels under the command of their powerful master Satan, the original anti-God rebel. They were very real, very numerous and very dangerous, and they could be anywhere.

They could (I was told) possess or more commonly oppress the unwary, and you could open yourself up to their malevolent influence by engaging in sinful behaviour (particularly sexual). You could also unwittingly invite them in through non-Christian spiritual practices, particularly anything New Age or occult, including meditation, yoga, drugs, crystals or listening to trance-inducing music (or heavy metal); by playing Dungeons & Dragons, or watching horror films; by even possibly just by saying the wrong things. These beings could then cause all manner of havoc and destruction, until properly ‘bound’ and ‘cast out’ in the name and authority of Jesus Christ.

The primary task of these evil beings was twofold. Firstly to blind and deafen non-Christians to the gospel, thus preventing their salvation from eternal hell. Secondly, to cause as much trouble and pain as possible for Christians, disrupting or derailing their ministry, tempting them to sin, causing them suffering and persecution, bringing disease and discouragement and so forth.

It was our duty then as Christians to oppose these evil forces by engaging in ‘spiritual warfare’. We were to attack and destroy the enemy’s ‘strongholds’ through mighty faith-filled prayer, authoritatively re-claiming spiritual (and sometimes physical) ‘territories’ in the name of Jesus. And many of the choruses we sang in church reinforced this view that we were waging cosmic war in the heavenly realms. (Indeed there was an idea that just by singing worship songs we were hurting the enemy; if he had musical taste then that may well be so.)

Personal demons

There was also a very frightening personal element to all this for me. I’d done a number of things in my pre-conversion days that put me on the likely list for being demonically possessed, or at the very least oppressed. I had nightly nightmares in which I struggled to breathe as darkness engulfed me and an evil presence tried to suffocate me (which I now suspect was a form of narcolepsy or sleep apnoea). And as I continued to wrestle with various mental health issues post-conversion, I was fearful that I might still be under the malign influence of dark powers.

Popular charismatic literature also helped foster such thinking, chiefly Frank Peretti’s This Present Darkness and Piercing the Darkness. These novels portray a very literal battle for human souls between angelic and demonic forces ranged around American towns and campuses, operating through human agents (Christian on one side, New Age on the other). The depictions of yellow-eyed, sulphur-breathing demons were frankly silly, but the overall concept was potent and terrifying.

More convincing was C.S. Lewis’s darkly comic diabolic portrait in The Screwtape Letters, positing a world in which devilish tempters plague every one of us, seeking our downfall. Of course, Lewis didn’t mean it to be taken literally; and in some ways it’s a reassuring tale, with the junior tempter Wormwood a bumbling incompetent, an infernal Johnny English. But the idea is still frightening.

Demons and the Bible

Of course, there are also plenty of biblical passages that portray a battle between forces of good and evil.

There’s not a lot in the Old Testament, though we do have Satan tormenting Job, and there’s the fight between the angel Michael and apparently demonic ‘princes’ in the book of Daniel, delaying the answer to Daniel’s prayer. There are also a couple of other references in the Psalms and prophets.

In the New Testament though, Satan becomes much more of an active presence. There are the Temptation narratives in the gospels. There are the many exorcism and deliverance stories – most spectacularly ‘Legion’ and the herd of pigs. There are the repeated warnings in the epistles against Satan’s wiles, like Peter’s that ‘your enemy the devil prowls around like a roaring lion seeking whom he may devour’. In particular there’s the Ephesians 6 passage about the ‘armour of God’ and our fight ‘not against flesh and blood but against the principalities and powers of darkness in the heavenly places’. And finally there are the nightmarish visions of beasts, dragons and demons in Revelation.

What are we to make of all these? Do we take these scriptures literally, at face value? Or do we interpret them more metaphorically – as ancient and pre-scientific attempts to understand complex issues of psychopathology and psychosis, or as metaphors for the impersonal forces of chaos and entropy? I don’t know. I can only say how I now interpret it and leave you to decide for yourself what to make of it.

First though I’d like to explain why I think an over-emphasis on literal demons and spiritual warfare can be deeply unhealthy, even at times abusive.

Dangers of the spiritual-warfare mindset

The mentality of spiritual battle can lead to a deeply paranoid attitude, a feeling of being permanently under attack or under threat, imagining that any little setback is the devil getting at you. It can lead to an attitude of suspicion and paranoia towards other people who might be the agents (deliberate or unwitting) of the devil.

So it can foster fearfulness toward any group, doctrine or practice that is seen as not ‘sound’ or orthodox, which might possibly bear the enemy’s influence and if dialogued with might summon the presence of evil. Christian responses to phenomena such as the Harry Potter books are often regrettably in this knee-jerk ‘it’s of the devil!’ category. I’ve even heard fundamentalists say that homosexuals are ‘demonised’ and may bring evil influence into your home. Seriously.

And of course it can be a powerful threat to wield against ‘backsliding’, of falling away from ‘correct doctrine’ (i.e. questioning your church’s particular theology or practice). If you do this, you are supposedly falling prey to the enemy’s attack, coming under the influence of evil.

Spiritual warfare also provides a too-convenient scapegoat to blame whenever things go wrong or when we don’t quite manage to live the ‘victorious’ Christian life. I believe that in the vast majority of cases, claiming ‘I’m under spiritual attack!’ is superstitious over-spiritualising.

It’s also a handy and spiritual-sounding excuse if we mess up really badly – we must have succumbed to Satanic attack (perhaps as a result of our important ministry), rather than that we merely behaved stupidly as flawed humans sometimes will. I think we’re more than capable of producing our own evil thoughts and temptations, and messing things up for ourselves without any diabolic help.

Agnostic about the devil

So these days I’m agnostic about literal demons and forces of evil in the universe. I find it a little hard to believe that there are organised, personal, intelligent malevolent agents of an arch-villain Satan tasked with our downfall and destruction. If demons do exist, I suspect they bear little resemblance to their depictions in works like Peretti’s.

I can maybe accept the idea of ‘unquiet spirits’, restless souls or disembodied consciousnesses somehow needing to be released from some terrible event or deed that keeps them bound to an earthly location. And I can perhaps accept the idea of ‘energies’ connected with some place where a dark event took place. Perhaps.

Whether or not I believe in literal demons though, I do believe in very real forces of chaos and darkness, against which we do need to battle. However, I believe that the locus of these forces is primarily within our selves, in our own immature and damaged psyches.

The evil within

I believe that the most significant source of evil in the universe is not ‘out there’ but ‘in here’, deep within each of us.

We are complex, flawed, incomplete people. We have inside our beings powerful and potentially destructive forces both from our immature human natures and also from our evolutionary heritage as animals. We are of course much more than mere animals but certainly not less, and in our animal natures are forces of fear, lust, rage, greed and violent competition. In a sense, and at the risk of sounding like the daft vicar in Curse of the Were Rabbit, we all have a ‘beast’ within.

And then there’s also the immature part of our human self that wants to remain God-like, as we were when we were babies. It wants power; want to be in control of everything and everyone. It wants to have everything; to have every pleasure and gratification, to be denied nothing and to have to wait for nothing. It doesn’t want to grow up, doesn’t want to change, doesn’t want to experience the pain of separation. It doesn’t want to face reality or maturity or responsibility. It’s the little selfish tyrant-god within, holding us back from spiritual and emotional development.

M. Scott Peck puts it like this in The Road Less Travelled: ‘[laziness is] attempting to avoid necessary suffering, or taking the easy way out… Original sin does exist; it is our laziness… It is the natural force of entropy holding us back from our spiritual evolution.’

(Tangentially related to this, Irish physicist-theologian Keith Skene has an interesting take on Lucifer’s fall as representing the entry of entropy into the physical universe, bringing death and decay, competition for resources, the need to eat and so predate, etc.)

So the chief enemy we have to fight is always ourselves. It’s the destructive and entropic elements within us, the parts of us that militate against reality and responsibility and repentance; the parts that cling on to resentment and revenge, to lust and greed and control.

I’m inclined to see the idea of demons and dark powers primarily as a potent symbol and metaphor for these forces at work within our own natures; forces we barely understand and often struggle to control. We are made in God’s image and we have within ourselves, under his guidance and with his power, the potential to become something great and beautiful. But we also have another tug, a gravitational and entropic pull within our inner natures, which if followed to the end will turn us into something monstrous, an abomination. This to me is the primary truth behind the idea of spiritual warfare.

Postscript: societal and institutional evil

In this post I’ve concentrated on personal evil, the sources of evil within each of us. What about wider structures and systems of evil in society? Phenomena such as Nazi Germany and Stalinist Russia, the Rwandan Genocide, the Transatlantic Slave Trade and institutional child abuse in the Roman Catholic church all suggest that such wider patterns and systems of evil exist. These are powers greater than any one person, entropic vortices into which individuals on different sides of the equation get sucked as either agents or victims of a larger evil. I’ve looked at this in more depth in discussing The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas.

Nonetheless, I’d suggest that these vortices may still have the same primary roots in human bestiality and immaturity. But en masse they can create horrors and monstrosities that are beyond our control.

See also:

About TheEvangelicalLiberal

Aka Harvey Edser. I'm a web editor, worship leader, wannabe writer, very amateur composer and highly unqualified armchair theologian. My heroes include C.S. Lewis and Homer Simpson.
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15 Responses to Spiritual warfare – moving beyond demons in the closet

  1. Sarah Marten says:

    excellent article, it is amazing how much Jesus talks about driving our demons, I believe this shows his interest in our mental health, the demons of addiction, self-doubt and so on. Not little creatures with horns and a fork.


    • Thanks Sarah! I agree, I’m convinced that Jesus is hugely interested in our mental health, and that he calls us to treat people with humanity, rather than accusing them of harbouring the devil. That’s one of the reasons I find the over-literal view of spiritual warfare unhelpful (the horns and fork variety), because it can make people with genuine mental and emotional health difficulties feel literally demonised, unclean or infectious.


  2. Terry says:

    I can’t believe you wrote all this without mentioning our friend, Jack T. Chick. I’m going to link to one of his classic tracts to make up for your omission (no doubt influenced by a demon trying to prevent you from spreading the good news): http://www.chick.com/reading/tracts/0004/0004_01.asp


    • You’re right, as soon as I’d published the piece I realised I’d unforgivably omitted Jack Chick. Thank you for rectifying this heinous and doubtless diabolically-induced oversight. All hail Chick! (BTW what does his middle initial ‘T’ stand for? I hope it’s something to do with ‘Tract’ or ‘Terminator’.)


  3. jesuswithoutbaggage says:

    You describe a world familiar to me. Fortunately, it is a dark fantasy world I no longer inhabit. I escaped this world, but later encountered it again when I was a District Manager for America’s largest Christian Bookstore Chain. A time came when Peretti’s Darkness books and LaHaye’s Left Behind books, along with some other shallow titles, seemed to be the driving force in our sales. This was not my mission, and it was one of the reasons I left the company after 15 years.

    By the way, you may or may not know that Lewis very much regretted writing Screwtape Letters and was unhappy that it became the most popular of all he had written.

    I agree that demons can take the focus and responsibility away from ourselves. I have known of churches that cast our demons of pride, gluttony, and lust. How do we grow spiritually if the only effort it takes is to ‘cast out’ our shortcomings? As you say, evil is not out there–it is in us.

    Well said.


    • Peretti’s books terrified me! Not because their portrayal of demons was particularly scary – it was cartoonish and ridiculous – but because of the whole worldview it presented.

      Screwtape is my least favourite Lewis work these days, though I think it still has value if you can read it more metaphorically.

      I suppose my big problem – as with hell – is that on the surface at least, the gospels and Jesus do seem to imply that demons really exist in some sense. We could I suppose view Jesus’ deliverance ministry as purely symbolic or as a later addition. But if we take it at roughly face value, he does seem to spend a lot of time casting out and even talking to demons or ‘unclean spirits’. There are the ones who ‘recognise’ him in the Synagogue and shout out his title – pretty odd and hard to explain. And most troublingly, there’s the set of spirits he casts into a herd of pigs. What on earth are we to make of that?

      I say this not because I definitely believe in demons or evil spirits, but just because I find it hard to completely write off these passages – much as I desperately would like to!


      • jesuswithoutbaggage says:

        I understand what you mean. We have to address the stories of Jesus casting out demons. I try to do that in my upcoming post–so I won’t give anything away here.

        But another issue is that demons are commonly thought to be angels cast out of heaven with Lucifer, which is a tremendous problem because the Bible never says such a thing. There are links on the post to a series I did earlier on the supposed fall of Satan and his demons.


        • I think part of the issue is a misreading of the whole genre of Hebrew Apocalyptic literature (and the book of Revelation in particular), which is where a lot of the imagery of demons being cast out of heaven comes from.

          I’m personally more inclined to accept the theoretical possibility of some kind of ‘unquiet’ or ‘unclean’ spirits (or ghosts) than to accept the idea of an army of evil rebel angels under Lucifer.


  4. Richard Hankins says:

    I recognise the world you describe, as one I inhabited myself some decades ago, when I was still involved in an evangelical/charismatic church. A world full of fear, never quite sure whether Jesus was actually going to step in and “save” us from Satan, the raging lion prowling about seeking to devour us. I am glad to say I left all that behind a good while ago.

    I have subsequently (after several decades) come back to the question of spirit possession with perhaps a more healthy and enlightened attitude. A number of researchers, healers and spiritual practitioners have found it necessary to rid people of spirits that have become attached to their soul/spirit/aura, and which influence them in various negative ways. The spirits in question are not the “demons” you refer to. They are the spirits of deceased humans that have somehow got lost en route to the light or heaven (or whatever you want to call it). They appear to be stuck in a half way house, bound to a zone around the earth, albeit it on a different plane. These “lost souls” then attach themselves to living people, often as not just for some human company. Some may hang about because they don’t want to leave behind loved ones. Some fear going to the light will involve them in judgement and condemnation, a notion firmly implanted in many minds by so many evangelicals of course.

    The negative influence on the living various enormously from one case to the next. In my own case, I suffered from “dysthymia”, a sort of low grade depression, which I had from the age of 18 onwards, until about 3 months ago, when I was finally rid of the spirit of a Victorian woman who was attached to me. I am now 61 by the way. Other people may be driven to drug or alcohol abuse by attachments. Some mental illness may be caused by spirit attachments, particularly those that involve the hearing of “voices”.

    This field of investigation is in its early stages. It is quite different from the Catholic churches “exorcisms” or “deliverance ministry”, and quite different from the evangelical paranoia described so well in this article. A key difference is that when someone comes to a therapist and a spirit attachment is detected, suddenly there are two patients to work with. One is the living human person. The other is the spirit, who also needs help to move on to the Light, and to stop harassing living people.

    If anyone wants to follow this up, then there are variety of on-line resources on offer. Some I would recommend are:

    Dr Terence Palmer’s talks on You Tube. A typical one would be at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xIQuhk4sVq4 (Dr Palmer has a PhD in “spirit possession” – no, I am not kidding!)
    David Furlong, who has a website at http://www.spiritrelease.org/, and is on You Tube at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hDWG2qpc8dc



    • Hi Richard, thanks for getting in touch. What you say is really interesting, and comes coincidentally – or not! – at a time when I’ve been wondering about this whole subject again (it’s not something I normally think about very often).

      I genuinely don’t know what to think about this whole area. I’m generally drawn towards more psychological, naturalistic explanations for paranormal phenomena such as dissociative identity disorder. However, as I do retain a belief in the supernatural (or the divine at least) I certainly can’t write off reports of ghosts or spirits completely. And if I had to choose a spiritual explanation for phenomena of ‘possession’ (or ‘oppression’) I’d definitely be more inclined to believe in spirits of the departed clinging on to the living, rather than to the classic charismatic/evangelical view of demons as fallen angels working for Satan.

      So I think I need to retain an open mind on this subject, and I’m interested to hear from others like you who do have more experience of these matters.


  5. KR says:

    I realise it’s been a wee while since this was touched but…

    You have some right and some wrong in your post..

    First, we are told in the Bible that ‘each man is tempted when he is led astray by his own desires’ or words to that effect. For the most part, it is us who sins.


    Jesus did also cast out “unclean spirits”. Now, Jesus (or Yeshua as He is perhaps more properly known 🙂 ) was the Son of God, filled with the Spirit. If the “demon” that appears to be much like epilepsy was actually a mental health condition, would we have that passage in the Bible as it stands, or would we have Jesus basically explaining that it was not a spirit but a sickness, and healing rather than casting out?

    I doubt that Jesus as a man knew everything all the time, but He clearly had stuff revealed to Him on a very regular basis. See for example the times He knew what the Pharisees were thinking, the calling of Andrew, when He wrote on the sand while the elders were talking about the woman caught in adultery.. There’s a tradition that suggests what He was writing was a list of the sins these elders were guilty of. It fits logically, both with His “Whoever has not sinned may shoot first” (not something He said because He just wanted to go first!) and with the way said ‘leaders’ left.

    Jesus knew what was going on around Him. He healed sick people, raised some dead people (at least three times), and cast out spirits.

    I too have dealt with what are commonly called ‘demons’, though they are not a common encounter. As you suggest, and as the Bible confirms, most of the time it is our own lusts and desires that lead us into temptation – “which gives birth to sin and sin, when fully grown, gives birth to death” (paraphrased from memory).

    But have no doubt, our Lord was plenty smart and honest enough to know when He was dealing with sickness and when He was dealing with evil.

    We are also warned against bringing slanderous accusations against the devil – so while he is responsible for much pain on this earth he is not able to be responsible for everything, and we cannot and should not dare to blame him when it is our own sinful desires that lead us astray.

    Now as to what demons are… Are they the angels who rebelled with the devil? Or were they the “nephilim”, who we are warned will return in the last days (and are we close or far from that time? A lot of the technology needed which was laughably impossible just 30 years ago is now common place!)?

    Ghosts.. The Bible seems fairly clear that when we die we sleep until the return of our Glorious Saviour. Though many in the church claim such things are evil spirits we do have the account in Samuel with Saul and the witch of Endor – there is NOTHING in that passage that suggests the ‘ghost’ was anything but Samuel! Other encouters, I am not sure. I doubt the idea of ‘disembodied spirits’ who ‘got lost’ after a violent death, same for energies.. If God made it for us to ‘sleep’ after death then that is what happens. I’m pretty sure God could get things like that right, He’s not some bumbling fool with a bit of extra wisdom than us – this is the God who not only created the stars but also all of the physics that keeps them in motion just by saying “Be there!”. This is the God who designed and implemented DNA, the God who designed the many factories within our cells that process proteins among other things – stuff that is still beyond our best engineers and scientists! Our God who designed food for the stomach and the stomach for food – who made the materials we can eat and made our systems that can process food. The God who ‘knows the end from the beginning’

    He knows His stuff. He knows what He is doing, and He has /never/ made a mistake!

    (As to Chick publications.. I had blissfully forgotten that stuff! How my early faith survived and how I didn’t chose to end my life because of how that stuff made me feel…. God truly is a God of Miracles!)


    • Hi KR, thanks very much for your comment – I’m not sure I can do justice to it in a brief reply!

      I’m glad you think I got at least some right in my post – I suspect we’ll always get some stuff wrong, and I’d never claim that my views and ideas are 100% right! When I blog, I’m generally seeking to explore alternative ideas and possibilities rather than being too dogmatic or certain.

      I certainly don’t think Jesus was unintelligent or ‘wrong’, far from it – though I also don’t think he had perfect and complete knowledge except where the Spirit guided him.

      And when it comes to talk of unclean spirits and demons, I’m just not sure we’ve rightly understood the world that Jesus and his disciples inhabited. The word ‘daemon’ in Greek had none of the negative connotations that we’ve attached to it subsequently, and the ideas we’ve developed about possession by evil spirits / fallen angels is – as far as I can gather – very different from how 1st-century Jewish and Greek people would have seen it.

      I also don’t think Jesus was primarily trying to impart correct scientific knowledge, but rather to deal with human problems – sometimes using the language and understandings of his day. I’m not sure the realities of the unseen world can fully be expressed in human language except by metaphor, so my feeling is that some of what Jesus said has to be taken in less literal ways than the church has often done.

      However, I’m definitely not dismissing the possibility that there are spirits and that some are malevolent, nor even that there is a being or power we might call Satan. I’m just not convinced about it at the moment.

      And I certainly don’t believe God to be a bumbling fool! But I’m not sure the Bible is as clear (or intends to be) as I think you suggest, and not every Bible interpreter agrees on the idea of ‘soul sleep’, or exactly what that means and whether it precludes the possibilities of disembodied ‘ghosts’. Again, the Bible has to speak partly in metaphor about realities which are beyond human language and experience, so I prefer to leave some room for differing interpretations.

      But I think we both agree that God is amazing 🙂


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